This is the process by which human manipulate the breeding process to select certain traits to be bred over others. A great example would be breeding dogs for certain sizes.
Understanding Evolution. 2013. University of California Museum of Paleontology. 06 December 2013 <http://evolution.berkeley.edu/>.
Evolution vs. Artificial Selection
The difference between anthropogenic (human induced) evolution by means of natural selection (true evolution) and anthropogenic evolution by means of artificial selection (selective breeding). While anthropogenic evolution by natural selection is unintended, the process is a natural one in that a species is adapting to changes in its environment. Anthropogenic evolution by artificial selection however, is the deliberate manipulation of genetic information in order to select traits favored by humans, not nature (Campbell & Reece, 2005). Most evolutionary biologists are careful to distinguish between the two. An example of natural selection induced by humans would be antibiotic resistant bacteria. An example of artificial selection by humans would be the tremendous variety of dog breeds we see today. The operative word here is “selection”. Who is doing the selecting, mother nature or border collie breeder?
Campbell, N. A., & Reece, J. B. (2005). Biology (7th ed.). San Francisco: Pearson/Benjamin-Cummings.