When a population meets all of the of the Hardy-Weinberg conditions, it is said to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Human populations do not meet all of the conditions of HWE exactly, and their allele frequencies will change from one generation to the next and the population will evolve. How far a population deviates from HWE can be measured using the “goodness of fit” or [[|chi-squared test]] (χ2). http://www.nfstc.org/pdi/Subject07/pdi_s07_m01_02.htm
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The Hardy-Weinberg model makes several assumptions.
1. The population is large. This means the population is not experiencing genetic drift.
2. There is no geneflow between populations. All mating occurs within this population.
3. There are no mutations.
4. All mating is random. There is no sexual selection.
5. Natural selection is not occuring.
This model displays how genes remain in equilibrium over time if evolution is not occuring. If the equation is not in equilibrium, then evolution is occurring.