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Paul Root Wolpe It's time to question bio-engineering

It's time to question bio-engineering.

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(Fecura, Fisher, Hemerding, & Greagen, 2013)

Recombinant DNA is defined as DNA that has been manipulated by synthetic, human means by combining DNA of different specimens to create hybrid genes (Recombinant DNA, 2013).

Uses of Recombinant DNA[]

  • Creating hybrid animals for both practical and entertainment purposes
  • Infusing crop plants with DNA to deter pests, etc.
  • Modifying foods to be larger and more attractive
  • Creating more effective pharmaceuticals
  • What's next?

Controversy & Future Implications[]

In combination with other technologies we are now able to create living computer chips, grow human parts on animals for transplantation, and utilize living tissue (organisms) to power or be powered by machines (Wolpe, 2010). Since the dawn of this technology it has been controversial among people primarily because of moral implications (Fredrickson, 2001) and continues to be debated today as technology progresses (Berg, 1995). As we continue to experiment with our ability to recombine genes we are creating implications for our own futures. We have recently been able to genetically modify a monkey to be able to glow in the dark (Wolpe, 2010) - when will these experiments be taken to the next level, to humans?


Berg, P., & Singer, M. F. (1995). The recombinant DNA controversy: twenty years later. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 92(20), 9011. 

Fecura, Fisher, Hemerding, & Greagen, (2013). Recombinant DNA Technology 3-4. Regent Genetic Technology. Retrieved from: http://regentsgenetictechnology.wikispaces.com/Recombinant+DNA+Technology+3-4 

Fredrickson, D. S. (2001). The recombinant DNA controversy: a memoir: science, politics, and the public interest 1974-1981. Washington, DC: ASM Press.

Recombinant DNA (2013). Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recombinant_DNA

Wolpe, P.R. (2010). Paul Root Wolpe: It's time to start questioning bioengineering. Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ovV7v2XYJAI