DragonflyIssuesInEvolution13 Wiki

Types of refuge planting


Refuge Planting is a when a crop is planted that does not have any biotechnology that is used to control insect pests.  This crop is planted within the same type of crop that does contain the biotechnology.  The purpose of this is to make sure insects do not become overly exposed and evolve to not be resistant to the biotechnology.  This will allow insects that become resistant and mate with those who are not to produce, but the offspring would help to preserve the effectiveness of the biotechnology because they would not be susceptible. 

Potential Non Compliance Issues?
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Photo by L. Brian Stauffer SOURCE: http://news.illinois.edu/news/11/0512Btcorn_MichaelGray.html

One article by the University of Illinois News Bureau found (in 2011)  that a significant number of farmers in Illinois did not intend to do refuge plantings.  This could hasten the resistance of organisms to crops modified with Bt.  In 2008 some estimated as many as 25% of farmers were disregarding EPA requirements.   


Palumbi, S. 2001. Humans as the World's Greatest Evolutionary Force. Science, New Series, 293: 5536, 1786-1790.


News Bureau | University of Illinois. (n.d.). Growing numbers of corn farmers ignoring refuge requirement. Retrieved November 24, 2013, from http://news.illinois.edu/news/11/0512Btcorn_MichaelGray.html